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Issue 190
Messenger Issue 190

The Messenger Issue 190

Highlights include:

  • Mainieri, V., Leibundgut, B. et al.: The 4MOST Community Surveys
  • Jerabkova, T., Patat, F. et al.: The First Results of Distributed Peer Review at ESO Show Promising Outcomes

Read the full PDF

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Table of Content No. 190 | 2023
Astronomical Science
Mainieri, V., Leibundgut, B. et al.
The 4MOST Community Surveys
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190....3M
Mainieri, V., Leibundgut, B., de Jong, R., Mas-Hesse, J., Liske, J., Lind, K., Loveday, J.

Toloza, O., Rebassa-Mansergas, A. et al.
The White Dwarf Binary Survey (WDB)
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190....4T
Toloza, O., Rebassa-Mansergas, A., Raddi, R., Reindl, N., Gaensicke, B., Fusillo, N., Scaringi, S., Belloni, D., Breedt, E., Camisassa, M., Cunningham, T., de Martino, D., Ederoclite, A., Geier, S., Green, M., Inight, K., Kupfer, T., Maldonado, J., Marsh, T., Pala, A., Parsons, S., Pelisoli, I., Ren, J., Rodriguez-Gil, P., Sahu, S., Schmidtobreick, L., Schreiber, M., Schwope, A., Steeghs, D., Szkody, P., Toonen, S., Tremblay, P., Zorotovic, M.
Binary systems containing one or two white dwarfs are important for studying stellar evolution and interactions under a wide range of astrophysical conditions. Thanks to the Gaia mission we have identified the first statistically significant and unbiased sample of ~ 170 000 white dwarf binary candidates. It comprises both systems that never interacted that are part of common proper motion pairs and systems that evolved through mass transfer episodes resulting in close white dwarf binaries. White dwarf binaries hold the potential to observationally constrain a wide variety of key ingredients that currently limit the validity of theoretical models.

Sacco, G., Jeffries, R. et al.
The 4MOST Survey of Young Stars (4SYS)
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190....7S
Sacco, G., Jeffries, R., Binks, A., Magrini, L., Damiani, F., Wright, N., Prisinzano, L., Zari, E., Schneider, C., Beccari, G., Weaver, G., D’Orazi, V., Biazzo, K., Nisini, B., Antoniucci, S., Franciosini, E., Robrade, J., Stelzer, B., Alfaro, E., Alves, J., Bayo, A., Boffin, H., Bonito, R., Bouy, H., Brown, A., Corbelli, E., Degl’Innocenti, S., Fedele, D., Gagné, J., Galli, P., Großschedl, J., Jerabkova, T., Kastner, J., Kawata, D., Meingast, S., Miret-Roig, N., Moraux, E., Olivares, J., Parker, R., Moroni, P., Prusti, T., Randich, S., Roccatagliata, V., Spina, L.
Most nearby young stars (with ages < 100 Myr) in the Galactic disc no longer reside in their dense, clustered birthplaces; they are found all around us. The 4MOST Survey of Young Stars will identify a representative sample of about 105 young, low-mass stars within 500 pc of the Sun and will measure their chemistry, 3D kinematics and ages in order to: trace the spatial and dynamical evolution of star-forming structures; quantify the star formation rate and chemical inhomogeneity in the local disc; vastly expand the number of identified young stars for exoplanetary studies; and provide huge coeval samples to improve young stellar evolutionary models.

Ibata, R., Battaglia, G. et al.
4MOST Gaia RR Lyrae Survey (4GRoundS)
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190...10I
Ibata, R., Battaglia, G., Bellazzini, M., Clementini, G., Errani, R., Famaey, B., Garofalo, A., Hill, V., Martin, N., Mucciarelli, A., Monari, G., Posti, L., Skúladóttir, Á., Sollima, A., Siebert, A., Thomas, G., Malhan, K., Freundlich, J., Arentsen, A., Yuan, Z.
The 4GRoundS survey will measure the radial velocities and metallicities of southern RR Lyrae stars in Gaia Data Release 3. These stars have excellent photometric distances, allowing the exquisite Gaia proper motions to be converted into physically useful transverse velocities. Armed with the missing radial velocity, 4GRoundS will provide the community with a dataset that will enable studies of the orbital structure of the halo and outer disc, and allow realistic modelling of these components. It will also enable the identification of coherent dynamically cold streams. Together these analyses will map the mass of the Milky Way out to 100 kpc and test models of the dark sector.

Lucatello, S., Bragaglia, A. et al.
Stellar Clusters in 4MOST
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190...13L
Lucatello, S., Bragaglia, A., Vallenari, A., Cantat-Gaudin, T., Kuzma, P., Guarcello, M., Spina, L., Aguado, D., Carrera, R., Castro-Ginard, A., Damiani, F., D’Orazi, V., Prisinzano, L., Valenti, E., Alfaro, E., Balaguer-Nuñez, L., Balbinot, E., Barrado, D., Baumgardt, H., Bellazzini, M., Bonito, R., Bossini, D., Carraro, G., Carretta, E., Catanzaro, G., Casamiquela, L., Cassisi, S., Dalessandro, E., De Silva, G., Ferguson, A., Ferraro, F., Frasca, A., Galli, P., Gieles, M., Gran, F., Gratton, R., Hilker, M., Jeffries, R., Jordi, C., Korn, A., Lanzoni, B., Larsen, S., Lattanzio, J., Lugaro, M., Mapelli, M., Massari, D., Miglio, A., Miret-Roig, N., Momany, Y., Mucciarelli, A., Olivares, J., Pasquato, M., Roccatagliata, V., Salaris, M., Schiavon, R., Smiljanic, R., Sollima, A., Tautvaišienė, G., Varri, A., Wright, N.
The 4MOST Stellar Clusters Survey will target essentially all the Galactic globular and open clusters and star-forming regions accessible to 4MOST (about 120 globulars, 1800 open clusters and 80 star-forming regions). This will: shed light on how clusters form, evolve, dissolve, and populate the Milky Way; calibrate complex physics that affects stellar evolution, on which our ability to measure accurate ages ultimately rests; and evaluate the contribution of star clusters to the formation and evolution of the individual Galactic components with unparalleled statistics.

Pawlak, M., Mazeh, T. et al.
Spectroscopic Discovery of Binaries with Dormant Black Holes
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190...17P
Pawlak, M., Mazeh, T., Faigler, S., Shenar, T., Sana, H., Bashi, D.
The goal of the Spectroscopic Discovery of Binaries with Dormant Black Holes survey is to spectroscopically follow up stars that might have dormant compact companions, either black holes or neutron stars. These stars have been identified as ellipsoidal binaries in the Magellanic Clouds by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE). A sample of more than 700 ellipsoidals with periods shorter than 10 days will be observed to obtain multi-epoch radial-velocity measurements. 4MOST radial velocities in conjunction with OGLE photometry will allow the determination of the secondary component mass and hence the identification of systems with compact companions.

Skúladóttir, Á., Puls, A. et al.
The 4MOST Survey of Dwarf Galaxies and their Stellar Streams (4DWARFS)
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190...19S
Skúladóttir, Á., Puls, A., Amarsi, A., Battaglia, G., Buder, S., Campbell, S., Cardona-Barrero, S., Christlieb, N., Feuillet, D., Gelli, V., Hansen, C., Hill, V., Ibata, R., Jablonka, P., Kacharov, N., Karakas, A., Koch-Hansen, A., Lind, K., Lombardo, L., Lucchesi, R., Lugaro, M., Martin, N., Massari, D., Nordlander, T., Reichert, M., Rossi, M., Ruiter, A., Salvadori, S., Seitenzahl, I., Tolstoy, E., Xylakis-Dornbusch, T., Youakim, K.
The present-day Milky Way is the result of a long history of mergers and interactions with smaller galaxies. The 4DWARFS survey will target the dwarf galaxies and stellar streams in the 4MOST footprint, and unveil their chrono-chemo-kinematical properties. The survey will provide radial velocities, chemical abundances and stellar ages for 140 000 stars, and thus increase the number of stars with detailed information in such systems by several orders of magnitude. 4DWARFS will provide a new, deeper view of the Milky Way environment, shedding light on the first stars, chemical evolution, dark matter halos, and hierarchical galaxy formation down to the smallest scales.

Iovino, A., Mercurio, A. et al.
Stellar Population Survey Using 4MOST (4MOST-StePS)
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190...22I
Iovino, A., Mercurio, A., Gallazzi, A., La Barbera, F., Longhetti, M., Tortora, C., Zibetti, S., Belfiore, F., Bianconi, M., Busarello, G., Corsini, E., Costantin, L., De Lucia, G., De Propris, R., D’Eugenio, F., Fontanot, F., García-Benito, R., Hirschmann, M., Haines, C., Mannucci, F., McGee, S., Merluzzi, P., Morelli, L., Moretti, A., Pasquali, A., Poggianti, B., Pozzetti, L., Rodighiero, G., Sánchez-Blázquez, P., van der Wel, A., Vazdekis, A., Vulcani, B., Zanella, A., Annunziatella, M., Concas, A., Cassarà, L., Cresci, G., Curti, M., de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A., Mateu, A., Delgado, R., Mancini, C., Pacifici, C., Perez-Montero, E., Pizzella, A., Perez-Gonzalez, P., Trager, S., Vergani, D.
Galaxy spectra encode in their continuum and absorption/emission features a wealth of information on galaxy physics, mass assembly and chemical enrichment history. The 4MOST-StePS survey will collect high-quality spectra (with a median signal-to-noise ratio of about 30 Å–1, and resolution R ~ 5000) for a sample of about 3300 galaxies brighter than IAB = 20.5 within the RA-Dec-z footprint of the WAVES-Deep survey. These spectra will provide a precise empirical description of the evolutionary path of massive galaxies in the intermediate redshift range (0.3 < z < 0.7) between the LEGA-C and SDSS surveys. The locations of the galaxies within the cosmic web, unveiled by WAVES-Deep, will disclose the connection between galaxy properties and environment, down to the scales of galaxy pairs.

Duncan, K., Baker, A. et al.
Optical, Radio Continuum and HI Deep Spectroscopic Survey (ORCHIDSS)
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190...25D
Duncan, K., Baker, A., Best, P., Blyth, S., Hatch, N., Holwerda, B., Jarvis, M., Maddox, N., Smith, D., Arnaudova, M., Chemin, L., Davé, R., Dunlop, J., Frank, B., Gawiser, E., Gloudemans, A., Hale, C., Heywood, I., Kannappan, S., Kondapally, R., McLure, R., Morabito, L., Nesvadba, N., Pan, H., Ponomareva, A., Prescott, M., Roberts, H., Röttgering, H., Somerville, R., Tudorache, M., Vaccari, M., Whittam, I., Wu, J., Zwaan, M.
Galaxy evolution is regulated by the continuous cycle of gas accretion, consumption and feedback. Crucial in this cycle is the availability of neutral atomic (HI) and molecular hydrogen. Our current inventory of HI, however, is very limited beyond the local Universe (z > 0.25), resulting in an incomplete picture. ORCHIDSS is designed to address this critical challenge, using the powerful combination of 4MOST spectroscopy and sensitive radio observations from the MeerKAT deep extragalactic surveys to trace the evolution of neutral gas and its lifecycle within galaxies across the bulk of cosmic history.

Gruen, D., McCullough, J. et al.
4MOST Complete Calibration of the Colour-Redshift Relation (4C3R2)
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190...28G
Gruen, D., McCullough, J., Amon, A., Bernstein, G., van den Busch, J., Canning, R., Castander, F., DeRose, J., Hartley, W., Hildebrandt, H., Kuijken, K., Liske, J., Masters, D., Miquel, R., Yuste, A., Roodman, A., Seitz, S., Saglia, R., Stern, D., Tortorelli, L., Wright, A.
Accurate knowledge of the redshift distributions of faint samples of galaxies selected by broad-band photometry is a prerequisite for future weak lensing experiments to deliver precision tests of our cosmological model. The most direct way to measure these redshift distributions is spectroscopic follow-up of representative galaxies. For this to be efficient and accurate, targets have to be selected such that they systematically cover a space defined by apparent colours in which there is little variation in redshift at any point. 4C3R2 will follow this strategy to observe over 100 000 galaxies selected by their KiDS-VIKING ugriZYJHKs photometry over a footprint identical to that of the WAVES survey, to constrain the colour-redshift relation with high multiplicity across two-thirds of the colour space of future Euclid and Rubin samples.

Haines, C., Jaffé, Y. et al.
CHANCES: A CHileAN Cluster galaxy Evolution Survey
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190...31H
Haines, C., Jaffé, Y., Tejos, N., Monachesi, A., Pompei, E., Finoguenov, A., Sifón, C., Lopez, S., Manjunatha, A., Bilton, L., Comparat, J., Cuellar, R., D’Ago, G., Demarco, R., Lima-Dias, C., Lösch, E., Merluzzi, P., Castelli, A., Sodre, L., Vinicius, E., and the CHANCES team
CHANCES, the CHileAN Cluster galaxy Evolution Survey, will study the evolution of galaxies in and around ~ 150 massive galaxy clusters, from the local Universe out to z ~ 0.45. It will target ~ 300 000 rAB < 20.5 galaxies with 4MOST, providing comprehensive spectroscopic coverage of each cluster out to 5r200 in synergy with eROSITA. Its wide and deep scope will trace massive and dwarf galaxies from the surrounding filaments and groups to the cores of galaxy clusters, enabling the study of galaxy pre-processing and the role of the evolving environment on galaxies. We will also study the effect of clusters on the cold circumgalactic medium by targeting 50 000 cluster–QSO pairs.

Bauer, F., Lira, P. et al.
Chilean AGN/Galaxy Extragalactic Survey (ChANGES)
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190...34B
Bauer, F., Lira, P., Anguita, T., Arevalo, P., Assef, R., Barrientos, F., Berg, T., Bernal, S., Bian, F., Boquien, M., Buat, V., Chilingarian, I., Coppi, P., De Cicco, D., Diaz, Y., Grishin, K., Hernandez-Garcia, L., Kakkad, D., Katkov, I., Krogager, J., López-Navas, E., Martínez-Ramírez, L., Mazzucchelli, C., Motta, V., Ricci, F., Ricci, C., Rojas, A., Rouse, B., Sánchez-Sáez, P., Toptun, V., Treister, E., Vito, F.
4MOST-ChANGES will target a legacy sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN), based on optical continuum variability and spectral energy distribution (SED) selection from several existing sur- veys, and ultimately complemented by Rubin LSST to: 1) constrain the low-MBH, low-L/LEdd end of the accretion and black hole (BH) density functions to z ~ 1, and, by extension, BH seed models; 2) investigate correlations among AGN (MBH, L/LEdd, ultraviolet slope, outflows, variability) and host properties (stellar age, metallicity, kinematics); 3) confirm/characterise rare BH subsamples (extreme variability, tidal disruption events, lensed, intervening absorption line systems) for detailed multi-wavelength follow-up studies.

Krogager, J., Leighly, K. et al.
The 4MOST–Gaia Purely Astrometric Quasar Survey (4G-PAQS)
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190...38K
Krogager, J., Leighly, K., Fynbo, J., Heintz, K., Balashev, S., Bauer, F., Berg, T., Choi, H., Christensen, L., De Cia, A., Ellison, S., Geier, S., Glikman, E., Gupta, N., Konstantopoulou, C., Kosenko, D., Ledoux, C., López, S., Milvang-Jensen, B., Morabito, L., Møller, P., Noterdaeme, P., Pettini, M., Prochaska, J., Raimundo, S., Richard, J., Srianand, R., Telikova, K., Terndrup, D., Tripp, T., Vestergaard, M., Zafar, T.
The 4MOST–Gaia Purely Astrometric Quasar Survey (4G-PAQS) will carry out the first large-scale, colour-independent quasar survey selected solely on the basis of astrometry from Gaia. Our main objective is to quantify the selection effects of current colour-selected samples. These colour-selected samples bias our view of the neutral gas and its chemical enrichment because of dust obscuration and reddening of optical colours. Moreover, the broad absorption-line outflows observed in quasars are under-represented by optical colour selection. 4G-PAQS will provide the first sample to overcome these challenges and will constrain the physical and chemical properties of gas in galaxies and quasars at cosmic noon.

Peroux, C., Merloni, A. et al.
Transform our Understanding of the Baryon Cycle with High-Resolution Quasar Spectroscopy (ByCycle)
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190...42P
Peroux, C., Merloni, A., Liske, J., Salvato, M., Augustin, R., Balzer, F., Cioni, M., Comparat, J., Driver, S., Fresco, A., Garzilli, A., Hamanowicz, A., Klitsch, A., Kneib, J., Krogager, J., Nelson, D., Richard, J., Schady, P., Shen, Y., Szakacs, R., Weng, S., Yang, Q., and the ByCycle team
The term baryons refers to the normal matter of the Universe. Surprisingly, only a minority of this normal matter (< 10%) can be probed by observations of starlight from galaxies. The ByCycle project aims to study the remaining majority of the baryons traced by the intergalactic gas. To this end, ByCycle will use the powerful synergy of absorption and emission diagnostics by observing a large sample of background quasars to probe the circumgalactic medium of foreground objects in the same sky regions. The objective of the 2.8-million fibre-hour ByCycle project is ultimately to characterise the physical processes by which gas changes phases and travels into, through, and out of galaxies. Such a study is essential to our understanding of the growth of structure in the Universe.

Taylor, E., Cluver, M. et al.
The 4MOST Hemisphere Survey of the Nearby Universe (4HS)
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190...46T
Taylor, E., Cluver, M., Bell, E., Brinchmann, J., Colless, M., Courtois, H., Hoekstra, H., Kannappan, S., Lagos, C., Liske, J., Tempel, E., Howlett, C., McGee, S., Said, K., Skelton, R., Gunawardhana, M., Bellstedt, S., Hunt, L., Jarrett, T., Lidman, C., Lucey, J., Alam, S., Bilicki, M., de Graaff, A., Hellwing, W., Leslie, S., Loubser, I., Marchetti, L., Maseda, M., Mogotsi, M., Norberg, P., Sonnenfeld, A., Sorce, J., and the 4HS Team
The 4MOST Hemisphere Survey (4HS) will obtain uniform spectroscopy and redshifts for approximately six million galaxies over ~ 2π steradians, and with high and unbiased completeness for z < 0.15. 4HS aims to 1) complete the map of mass and motion in the Local Volume, 2) map the influence of environment on galaxy evolution through overwhelming statistics, and 3) define the local (z < 0.15) galaxy reference sample for the era of LSST, Euclid, and ASKAP/MeerKAT/SKA. The result is a dataset with exceptional and long-lasting legacy value.

Collett, T., Sonnenfeld, A. et al.
The 4MOST Strong Lensing Spectroscopic Legacy Survey (4SLSLS)
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190...49C
Collett, T., Sonnenfeld, A., Frohmaier, C., Glazebrook, K., Sluse, D., Motta, V., Verma, A., Anguita, T., Koopmans, L., Tortora, C., Courbin, F., Cabanac, R., Frye, B., Smith, G., Diego, J., Alteiri, B., Lopez, S., Fassnacht, C., Cooray, A., Goobar, A., Ryczanowski, D., Serjeant, S., Richard, J., Treu, T., Moustakas, L., Li, R., Jacobs, C., Lemon, C., Marchetti, L., Hartley, P., Jullo, E., Lee, C., Birrer, S., Fritz, A., Nightingale, J., Napolitano, N., Plazas, A., Kruk, S., Spiniello, C., Grillo, C., Suyu, S., Shajib, A., Vernardos, G., Dye, S., Daylan, T., Newman, J., Schuldt, S.
Almost all science that can be done with strong gravitational lenses requires knowledge of the lens and source redshifts. The 4MOST Strong Lensing Spectroscopic Legacy Survey (4SLSLS) will follow up strong lens candidates discovered in the Euclid survey and the Legacy Survey of Space and Time. 4SLSLS will provide pairs of redshifts for 10 000 strong-lensing galaxies (lenses) and background galaxies (sources). Velocity dispersions will also be measured for 5000 lenses. This sample will enable discoveries about the evolution of galaxies, the study of intrinsically faint objects and of the cosmological model.

Telescopes and Instrumentation
Martinez, P., Beaulieu, M. et al.
SPEED — Get Ready for the (PCS) Rush Hour
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190...55M
Martinez, P., Beaulieu, M., Gouvret, C., Spang, A., Marcotto, A.
The Segmented Pupil Experiment for Exoplanet Detection (SPEED) optical test bed is now ready for operation. SPEED is dedicated to high-contrast imaging at short angular separations with segmented telescopes. Its optical design allows a wide range of applications and the immediate goal is to demonstrate a high-contrast dark hole close to the stellar vicinity. This will be achieved by a combination of optimal wavefront shaping architecture, small inner working angle coronagraphy, and efficient complex field sensor for fine cophasing and dark hole generation.

De Rosa, R., Otarola, A. et al.
Effects of the Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha‘apai Volcanic Eruption on Observations at Paranal Observatory
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190...58R
De Rosa, R., Otarola, A., Szeifert, T., Smoker, J., Selman, F., Mehner, A., Bian, F., Sedaghati, E., Seidel, J., Smette, A., de Wit, W.
The Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha‘apai volcano erupted on 15 January 2022 with an energy equivalent to around 61 megatons of TNT. The explosion was bigger than any other volcanic eruption so far in the 21st century. Huge quantities of particles, including dust and water vapour, were released into the atmosphere. We present the results of a preliminary study of the effects of the explosion on observations taken at Paranal Observatory using a range of instruments. These effects were not immediately transitory in nature, and a year later stunning sunsets are still being seen at Paranal.

Astronomical News
Jerabkova, T., Patat, F. et al.
The First Results of Distributed Peer Review at ESO Show Promising Outcomes
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190...63J
Jerabkova, T., Patat, F., Primas, F., Dorigo, D., Sogni, F., Astolfi, L., Bierwirth, T., Prümm, M.
The European Southern Observatory (ESO) implemented a new paradigm called Distributed Peer Review (DPR) as part of its proposal evaluation process in Period 110. Under DPR, Principal Investigators who submit proposals agree to review a certain number of proposals submitted by their peers and accept that their own proposal(s) are reviewed by their peers who have also submitted proposals in the same cycle. This article presents a brief overview of the DPR process at ESO, and its outcomes based on data from periods 110 and 111.

Paladini, C., Tristram, K. et al.
Report on the IAU Hands-on Workshop: The VLTI High angular resolution Observations Workshop
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190...67P
Paladini, C., Tristram, K., de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.
As part of the International Astronomical Union’s Hands-On Workshops (I-HOW) initiative, ESO Chile organised the first international Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) workshop in Vitacura. The main goal was to train young scientists from Latin American countries in accessing, analysing and using VLTI archival data for their research projects. Through a series of lectures on interferometry and instrumentation, science, and soft skills, followed by practical hands-on sessions, the attendees were given the tools they needed to start using VLTI data for their own research. The workshop provided the perfect environment in which to build a network between VLTI specialists and future users and it furnished a great experience for all the participants, students, teachers and organisers alike.

Rivera, C., Ginolfi, M. et al.
Fellows at ESO
ADS BibCode: 2023Msngr.190...70E
Rivera, C., Ginolfi, M., Seidel, J., Abdul-Masih, M.